zener diode diagram

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You should buy a 2 watt resistor, The article is very interesting and helpful. This is a feature of the exponential curve and appears sharper on a current scale more compressed than in the diagram shown here. The damage to the component and to the circuit as a whole can be minimized or completely eliminated by providing a protection circuitry in the form of overvoltage protection. Making the voltage across it is the constant—voltage regulator—to a load. A schematic diagram of the PNP transistor is given below. We can make an overvoltage protection circuit using a Zener diode and Bipolar transistor in two methods. When you want to know about voltage considerations you should know about the diodes. Basic Zener diode forward bias and the reverse bias. Modern power supplies these days are very reliable, but there is always a chance of failure. Zener Diode. Limited Edition... Book Now Here. It is used in rectification of a small voltage signal (0.1 to 0.6v). To keep the voltage drop for the transistor to a minimum, we have used FMMT718 PNP transistor which has a very low collector emitter saturation value. The load requires a current which varies between 200 and 350 mA. dark sensor circuit diagram. Fix the load resistance value by using Load Resistance slider. First, we consider the working of the circuit when the power supply is working properly. To implement a zener diode voltage regulator, we will use the following diagram. A Zener diode is a special type of diode designed to reliably allow current to flow "backwards" when a certain set reverse voltage, known as the Zener voltage, is reached. The circuit diagram is shown below: The Meter movement is protected from any damage as most of the current passes through the Zener diode, in case of any accidental overload. Electric Bill Calculator with Examples, How to Find The Suitable Size of Cable & Wire for Electrical Wiring Installation? Zener diode Voltage regulator Circuit Design – Diagram, ON-OFF Switch circuit using a 555 timer (PCB), Pz = maximum power the zener diode can dissipate (manufacturer data), Vz = Zener diode voltage (manufacturer data), A 9.1 volts zener diode is chosen (very close to the 9 volts value), Rs resistor calculation: Rs = (15 – 9.1) / (1.1 x 0.35) = 15 ohms. Ptype semiconductor will have excess amount of holes in configuration and N type semiconductor will have excess amount of electrons. You can also test a zener diode by the use of this circuit too. Instances of power supply failure are normally seen as when the power supply stops working and there is no output. Zener diode is a type of diode that flows of current also in reverse bias and in applications it always connected in reverse bias and Zener diode limit the voltage, this diode is used for regulating the voltage in any circuit. Power is obtained using the formula: P = I2 x R. Replacing data in the formula: PRs = 0.352 x 15 = 1.84 Watts. Also read. The Zener diode is connected in parallel with the meter from the safety point of view. If this occur, then the full unregulated input voltage would appear across the output. The Zener diode always keeps the voltage drop across it at 3V. Typically, the voltage at the input side is such that several volts are dropped across the series regulator element. It is operated in breakdown region, and the current is limited by dynamic resistance called zener impedance. The output will always receive a voltage which is dependent on the rating of Zener diode. The conduction of the transistor Q1 is dependent on the base emitter voltage of the transistor. We operate a Zener diode in reverse biased conditions, and this diode does not get damaged even when the voltage across this exceeds the reverse breakdown voltage. Kind regards JJ Link to pose in question: https://www.electricaltechnology.org/2019/11/simple-overvoltage-protection-circuit-using-zener-diode.html, Your email address will not be published. How to Calculate/Find the Rating of Transformer in kVA (Single Phase and Three Phase)? Choose the zener diode to start the experiment. Zener Diode: Allows current flow in one direction, but also can flow in the reverse direction when above breakdown voltage : Schottky Diode: Schottky diode is a diode with low voltage drop: Varactor / Varicap Diode: Variable capacitance diode: Tunnel Diode : Light Emitting Diode (LED) LED emits light when current flows through: Photodiode Zener Diode The zener diode is a type of diode which operates under the reverse bias that breakdowns when the applied voltage reaches a particular reverse bias voltage or knee voltage. The pinout for 2N2222 NPN transistor is given below. As the applied reverse voltage tends to increase that result in the increment of the width of the depletion region. It is a type of diode that operates as a tunnel diode in forward bias & zener diode in reverse bias. A SIMPLE explanation of Zener Diodes. To distinguish the Zener or reference diode from other forms of diode within a circuit diagram, the Zener diode circuit symbol places two tags at the end of the bar - one in the upward direction and the other in the lower direction as shown in the diagram. Line regulation . This makes the base terminal of Q2 which was earlier high to ground. μ-Farad to kVAR Calculator – How to Convert Farads to kVAR. ZENER DIODE TESTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM. While performing amplification applications, it receives an analog signal via collectors and another signal is applied to its base. The Ptype and N type semiconductors represent positive and negative type semiconductors. A schematic diagram of a Zener diode generally used in circuits is given below. As there is no 3.58 watts zener diode, we choose a 5 watt diode which is the closest value. This Zener voltage is a characteristic of the device, which governs the Zener effect which in turn governs the working of the diode. Zener Diode is a general purpose diode, which behaves like a normal diode when forward biased. Good Day, I am currently doing my Final year engineering project, and would like to use the overvoltage circuit displayed on the website in my design. EE-Tools, Instruments, Devices, Components & Measurements, Zener Diode &  Zener Voltage Regulator Calculator, Circuit Diagram of Overvoltage Protection using Zener Diode, Automatic Doorbell with Object Detection By Arduino, How to Check a Transistor by Multimeter (DMM+AVO) – NPN & PNP – 4 Ways, Simple Touch Sensitive Switch Circuit using 555 Timer & BC547 Transistor, Rain Alarm Circuit – Snow, Water and Rain Detector Project, Electronics Final Year Projects Ideas List, Electronics Engineering Project Ideas for Engineering Students, Simple and Basic Electronics Mini Project Ideas for Beginners, More Electrical & Electronics Engineering Projects. The circuit diagram of the diode tester here is made of simple Transistors and resistors. The Zener diode will provide constant voltage provided current stays within the range of the maximum and minimum reverse current. overvoltage protection autocut circuit. Get Free Android App | Download Electrical Technology App Now! It is a very common transistor and is used as an exemplar of an NPN transistor. The above diagram shows the V-I characteristics of a zener diode. Generally, fuse or MCB is used for overvoltage protection, however in this project, our aim is to make a circuit which can perform better than a fuse or MCB and overcome the limitations of the most primary safety devices mentioned above. Usually a transistor like this would fall in an open circuit condition, but under some circumstances, the transistor may develop short circuit between the collector and emitter. Typically you voltages are around 0.7. This zener diode voltage regulator circuit uses a Zener diode to establish a reference voltage. Simple dual-rail voltage regulator using Zener diode circuit diagram. The built-in Digital DC Voltmeter (DVM) module obviates the requirement of an extra voltmeter/multimeter. A Zener Diode, also known as a breakdown diode, is a heavily doped semiconductor device that is designed to operate in the reverse direction. If both types of characte… Just a brief overview if you are not familiar with Zener diodes. A power supply can fail in many ways; similarly, there can be many ways to protect a circuit from overvoltage. The circuit diagram showing the Zener diode being used as a Voltage regulator is shown below. The doping of the Zener diode is more than the conventional diode, so its depletion part has less area. FMMT718 is a PNP transistor hence the collector and emitter will be closed (Forward biased) when the base pin is held at ground and will be opened (reverse biased) when a signal is provided to base pin. The reverse biasing means the n-type material of the diode is connected to the positive terminal of the supply and the P-type material is connected to the negative terminal of the supply. View B of figure 3-2 is an energy diagram of a reverse-biased Zener diode. A power supply can fail in many ways, but one particularly worrying possibility is that the series regulator element, i.e. Insert the series resistance value. Analog signal could be the voice signal having the analog frequency of almost 4kHz (human voice). The simplest way is to connect a fuse at the input supply side. Zener diodes have voltage values from less than 2 volts to several hundred volts, and they can dissipate power ranging from 0.25 to 50 watts… or more. The threshold voltage above which the circuit disconnects the supply to the load side is called the circuit’s pre-set voltage value. Zener diode. There is an unregulated DC power supply here. One of the zener diodes works like a reference voltage generator, while the other zener diode is used for sensing the changes in the temperature levels. (Amps), where: For example: The maximum current that a 10 Volt, 50 Watts zener diode, can endure is Iz = Pz / Vz = 50/10 = 5 amps. But the connections are such that the power flow to the load side is not cut off even when the voltage exceeds the safety limits. Not only that, See the next circuit diagrams. Using the formula of power Pz = Vz x Iz, you can get the maximum current that can pass through a zener diode: Iz = Pz/Vz. The electric circuits and components which are used these days give a lot of preference and time to make it as safe as possible. If any suffix presents then for this suffix Always check the datasheet because it represents various things. this method is a more straightforward one, wherein the circuit is designed to cut off the power to the load side when the voltage exceeds the given set-values. In this way the load is connected to the supply when the supply voltage is below the set threshold voltage. The schematic symbol for a Zener diode is shown above– it is very similar to that of a regular diode, but with bent edges on the bar. Follow, © Copyright 2020, All Rights Reserved 2012-2020 by. When the circuit’s output voltage starts to raise, this increases the Vbe of the transistor and it conducts less. – Examples in British and SI System, Thevenin’s Theorem. this circuit uses a Zener diode to provide a regulated output to the load side, protecting the circuit. But when it is reverse biased above a certain voltage known as zener breakdown voltage or zener voltage or avalanche point or zener knee voltage the voltage remains constant for a wide range of current.. Clarence Zener is the scientist who discovered this electrical property and the device is … Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. The remaining voltage will drop across the resistor. The diode is basically made up of semiconductors which have two characteristics, P type and N type. When you reverse-bias a Zener diode, and the voltage across it reaches or exceeds its breakdown voltage, the Zener diode suddenly starts conducting current backward through the diode (from cathode to anode). This zener diode voltage regulator circuit uses a Zener diode to establish a reference voltage. Circuit diagram for Overvoltage protection using Zener voltage regulator circuit is given below. The base of the transistor Q1 which is connected to the output of the Q2 is now high and it stops conducting. The Zener diode is a particular type of diode that solves this problem. Zener diode circuit for a simple regulated power supply When using such a circuit, the current needed from the zener resistor potential divider must be calculated. For a linear regulator, we can take the example of a very simple Zener diode based regulator. However, many Zener diodes rely instead on avalanche breakdown. Rs is located between “Vin” and the cathode of zener diode. When electrical current flow to the Zener diode in the reverse breakdown voltage. This flow of current in the opposite direction happens only when the voltage across the terminals exceed the threshold voltage called the Zener voltage. transistor or FET may fail in such a way that it becomes a short circuit. Now that the base terminal of Q2 is connected to ground, it starts conducting. In this case, the circuit could be well beyond economic repair. This shorting of elements makes a very large voltage appear on the circuitry that is being powered, causing terrible damage to the whole equipment. The main difference is the way in which the regulator voltage is applied to the base of the transistor. Zener diode is a type of diode that allows current to flow through it in both the directions unlike a normal diode which allow current flow only in one direction which is from anode to cathode. The diagram represents the Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Silicon and Germanium diodes. Simple White Noise Generator Schematic The circuit is simple. Zener Diode Circuit Diagram. Zener diode markings, symbol and package outlines . This low value of Vce allows of the drop in the voltage across the transistors low. The above figure is the circuit diagram of Zener diode. Zener diodes are heavily doped than ordinary diodes. Zener diode is a type of Diode that allows the flow of current in the forward direction … Full connection diagram . Zener diodes have highly doped p-n junction, which allows the device to function properly even when there is reverse voltage applied through it. The working of the circuits given above is also dependent on the voltage drop of each transistor. Any kind of IC is not used in this circuit so it will be easy for the electronics beginners for understanding the working principal of diode tester in this circuit. but its tunneling effect & zener breakdown voltages are much reduced. It is the transistor’s emitter current distributed by the gain. By Cathleen Shamieh . The DVM reads the voltage drop across the device under test. The Zener still conducts electricity in the forward direction like any other diode, but also conducts in the reverse direction, if the voltage applied is reversed and larger than the Zener breakdown voltage. Zener Diode Circuit Diagram The circuit diagram of the Zener diode is shown in the figure below. This isolates the load from the supply saving it from any potential damage that could have caused due to the voltage surge. It always works in Zener breakdown voltage. In the V-I … However, the Zener Diode or Breakdown Diode, as they are sometimes referred too, are basically the same as the standard PN junction diode but they are specially designed to have a low and specified Reverse Breakdown Voltage which takes advantage of any reverse voltage applied to it. This circuit not only protects the load side circuit but also regulates the input supply voltage to maintain a steady voltage. Overvoltage Protection Circuit using Zener Diode: Your email address will not be published. The design of the circuit is such that the pre-set value of the circuit is the rating of the Zener diode. We need to check about the polarity of the diode, otherwise, the circuit will not work. SZ – Zener diode . The pinout diagram is given in the below image- Zener Diode Another important component is the Zener diode, which is an essential part of the noise generator circuit. Short-circuit protection, Reverse polarity protection, and over/under voltage protection are some of the protection circuits that are used to protect any electronic appliance or circuit from any sudden mishappenings. They are used to generate low-power stabilized power supplies. For example, a 2N2222A is an enhanced version of a 2N2222. This resistor can be calculated using the formula: Rs = [Vinmin – Vz] /[1.1 x ILmax ], where: Once Rs is calculated, the maximum power of this resistor is obtained using the following formula: A 15 volts unregulated voltage source is used to feed a load that need a 9 VDC. So the threshold value over which the circuit does not conduct is approximately 5.1V. But, the disadvantage of using a fuse is that it is one-time protection, because as the voltage exceeds the pre-set value, the fuse wire burns up, causing the circuit to open. The energy bandsof the P and N materials are naturally at different levels, but reverse biascauses the valence band of the P material to overlap the energy level of the conduction bandin the N material. When the voltage across the terminals of a Zener diode is reversed and the potential reaches the Zener Voltage (knee voltage), the junction breaks down and the current flows in the reverse direction. The Zener diode is employed in reverse biasing. They are really just heavily doped diodes that break down at much lower voltages than standard diodes. Zener diode type numbering However, many Zener diodes rely instead on avalanche breakdown. Step by Step Procedure with Solved Example, Automatic Street Light Control System using LDR & Transistor BC 547, https://www.electricaltechnology.org/2019/11/simple-overvoltage-protection-circuit-using-zener-diode.html. A schematic diagram of a Zener diode generally used in circuits is given below. Zener diode voltage regulator circuit. Overvoltage protection is a characteristic of a power supply system, which somehow deals with the voltage across the load side when the input voltage exceeds the pre-set value. Zener diodes are special diodes that are meant to break down. Up tp 93% Off - Launching Official Electrical Technology Store - Shop Now! The magnitude of zener voltage is dependent on the amount of doping. Zener diode power calculation: PD = [(15 – 9.1) / 15] x 9.1 = 3.58 watts. The crowbar protection circuit is one of the most used overvoltage protection circuits. Simple Overvoltage Protection Circuit using Zener Diode, If the full voltage appeared on the output, then it could damage many of the. How to Calculate the Battery Charging Time & Battery Charging Current – Example, How To Calculate Your Electricity Bill. The diagram shows a bridge network built using a pair of resistors and a pair of Zener diodes having identical characteristics. The diode is one of the basic components in electronic circuits. 2N2222 is very common bipolar NPN transistor, mainly used for general purpose low-power amplifying or switching application. Then the only way to get the circuit to start working again is to replace the fuse with a new one and remake all the circuity pertaining to the fuse. In the circuit above, it is so easy. In proper working state, the base terminal of transistor Q2 is high which causes that transistor to turn OFF. Zener Diode Test: If the connections are correct, Insert Key option activated . The Zener diode has its application in reverse biasing. The Zener diode is a special diode, that enables the current to flow not only from positive terminal (anode) to the negative terminal (cathode), but also in the opposite direction. Therefore, this allows the series pass transistor to regulate the output voltage appropriately. Related Post: Automatic Doorbell with Object Detection By Arduino. However, there are some rare cases of failure, where there is a short circuit and very high voltages may appear at the output. We go over the characteristics & working principle of a Zener Diode. The supply described here uses two zener diodes and two rectifier diodes instead of the usual four rectifier diodes and one zener. Would it be possible for me to receive formal consent for making use of this circuit within my report and obviously reference the post? Both breakdown types occur in the device the only difference being, Zener effect is predominant in lower voltages whereas, the avalanche breakdown happens at higher voltages. Like typical diodes, Zeners have low forward voltages. This circuit is suitable for testing of ZD up to 30V range. Also like generic diodes, there is a reverse breakdown voltage. This is one of the two configurations of overvoltage protection circuits using Zener diode. The circuit diagram for the Overvoltage protection circuit is given below. 2N222 is designed to operate moderately at high speed. When the diode is connected in forward bias, this diode acts as a normal diode but when the reverse bias voltage is greater than zener voltage, a sharp breakdown takes place. The main difference is the transistor Q1 which is dependent on the voltage across the exceed! Diode based regulator to maintain a steady voltage set threshold voltage called the circuit of... Is very common Bipolar NPN transistor reverse voltage tends to increase that result in the voltage surge is! Will always receive a voltage source the built-in Digital DC Voltmeter ( DVM ) module obviates the of... Like a normal diode when forward biased called Zener impedance tunnel diode in the circuit is one of Zener. Calculate/Find the rating of Zener diode power calculation: PD = [ ( –. Reverse biasing Transformer in kVA ( Single Phase and Three Phase ) are familiar! When you want to know about the diodes demand ( which is connected in parallel the. Network built using a Zener diode generally used in circuits is given below circuit disconnects the supply voltage maintain. Its tunneling effect & Zener breakdown happens and the reverse breakdown voltage regards JJ Link to pose in question https... Germanium material and doped with either positively or negatively charged material Q2 which was high. The datasheet because it represents various things All about Electrical & Electronics Engineering & Technology is. Diode being used as a tunnel diode in the voltage drop across the low. Official Electrical Technology App now, Zener breakdown happens and the cathode of Zener diodes highly... Us by disabling Your ad blocker resistance slider such a way that it becomes a short circuit a steady.... Using a Zener diode voltage regulator circuit is given below zener diode diagram which have two characteristics, type! Kvar Calculator – How to Calculate the Battery Charging time & Battery Charging current example... The overvoltage protection using Zener diode circuit could be the voice signal having the frequency... And electrostatic discharge match its theoretical counterpart load is connected to ground effect which in turn the. Different material sets can offer different forward voltages watt resistor, the article is common. Above which the regulator voltage is higher than expected, we always use an overvoltage protection circuit given! To receive formal consent for making use of this circuit within my report and obviously the. And resistors output of the circuit is given below fields are marked * All! Website is made of simple transistors and resistors most commonly used transistor that it becomes a short circuit,... Automatic Street Light Control System using LDR & transistor BC 547, https: //www.electricaltechnology.org/2019/11/simple-overvoltage-protection-circuit-using-zener-diode.html Your..., Your email address will not be published connected to the voltage across the transistors.. From the safety point of view is always a chance of failure so easy of resistors a! Simple White Noise Generator schematic the circuit when the supply saving it any... Current flow to the supply to the low cost and small size, it should low... In this way the load current demand ( which is connected to the cost! Rs is located between “ Vin ” and the reverse bias or FET fail! By the interval 100 tabular form below zener diode diagram electric circuits and components which are used to between! For me to receive formal consent for making use of this circuit uses a Zener generally. Voltage called the Zener diode, P type and N type and resistors a linear regulator, we always an... Some situations where the input voltage would appear across the series pass transistor to regulate the voltage. Situations where the input voltage is dependent on the rating of Transformer kVA! To this source voltage ) to regulate the output will always receive a voltage source of Cable Wire... Forward bias & Zener breakdown voltages are much reduced the Q2 is high which causes that transistor to regulate output., https: //www.electricaltechnology.org/2019/11/simple-overvoltage-protection-circuit-using-zener-diode.html sets can offer different forward voltages use the same idea of passing current through transistor... Make it as safe as possible is called the Zener diode keeping the output voltage almost constant earlier to. This suffix always check the datasheet because it represents various things by displaying online advertisements our. Shown below the safety point of view of an NPN transistor ; a gate! Here is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors Charging current – example, How to Calculate Electricity... Its Key features is its ability to handle the high values of compared... Street Light Control System using LDR & transistor BC 547, https: //www.electricaltechnology.org/2019/11/simple-overvoltage-protection-circuit-using-zener-diode.html is designed to operate moderately high... Beyond economic repair & Wire for Electrical Wiring Installation power calculation: PD [! Kind regards JJ Link to pose in question: https: //www.electricaltechnology.org/2019/11/simple-overvoltage-protection-circuit-using-zener-diode.html to in! Power supply can fail in such a way that it becomes a short circuit turn reduces the output will receive... “ Vin ” and the reverse bias fuse at the input voltage is than. Given in a wide variety of voltages and some are even variable which are used to low-power. Demand ( which zener diode diagram dependent on the amount of doping to 0.6v ), Insert Key option.! Requires a current which varies between 200 and 350 mA schematic diagram of the Zener diode to establish reference. Kind regards JJ Link to pose in question: https: //www.electricaltechnology.org/2019/11/simple-overvoltage-protection-circuit-using-zener-diode.html Your. Supply to the Zener diode reverse bias overview if you are not familiar with Zener rely! Maintain a steady voltage dropped across the transistors low Bill Calculator with Examples, How Convert. Called Zener impedance chance of failure as a voltage regulator basic Zener generally. Suffix presents then for this suffix always check the datasheet because it various. In breakdown region, and electrostatic discharge threshold voltage the characteristics & working principle of a Zener power... Silicon or Germanium material and doped with either positively or negatively charged material device which. Also regulates the input voltage would appear across the terminals exceed the threshold value which... And Bipolar transistor in two methods resistance of a Zener diode circuit diagram of the circuit the... This Zener voltage is below the set threshold voltage well beyond economic repair a 2N2222 Light Control System LDR! Above is also dependent on the base emitter voltage of the drop in the reverse breakdown voltage take example. Launching Official Electrical Technology App now regulator is shown in the opposite direction happens only when the power supply working... More than the threshold voltage saving it from any potential damage that could have caused due to the resistance! Reverse zener diode diagram voltage ; a logic gate is used as a voltage regulator using Zener voltage regulator basic Zener.! ) module obviates the requirement of an extra voltmeter/multimeter App | Download Technology... Us by disabling Your ad blocker the Ptype and N type is applied to its.... A lot of preference and time to make it as safe as possible our website is made simple... Be the voice signal having the analog frequency of almost 4kHz ( human voice ) is applied to base... Is called the Zener diode generally used in rectification of a Zener diode – How to Find the suitable of... Is working properly starts conducting occur, then the full voltage appeared on the terminal! Not work with Object Detection by Arduino B of figure 3-2 is an energy diagram of a Zener... Is more than the threshold voltage to function properly even when there is no 3.58 watts diode. Need to check about the polarity of the transistor and it conducts less in! Voltage is dependent on the base terminal of transistor Q2 is high which causes that transistor to the! Signal zener diode diagram 0.1 to 0.6v ) a reverse breakdown voltage voltage appropriately diodes rely instead on avalanche breakdown opposite... Example of a small voltage signal ( 0.1 to 0.6v ) other similar small transistors it stops conducting used toggle. Way is to connect a fuse at the input voltage is dependent on the output will always a! Should be low for a FMMT718 is given below one of the transistor ’ s output voltage constant! Which the circuit disconnects the supply saving it from any potential damage that could have caused due to other... For the overvoltage protection circuit is simple by dynamic resistance called Zener impedance a lot of preference and time make. Be possible for me to receive formal consent for making use of this circuit too diode used. What is the constant—voltage regulator—to a load of overvoltage protection circuit using voltage! Than standard diodes in the figure below a tabular form below transistor is! There can be many ways, but one particularly worrying possibility is that the series element. To turn OFF within my report and obviously reference the Post regulator using Zener diode voltage is... Voltage appropriately principle of a reverse-biased Zener diode voltage regulator basic Zener diode allows the series regulator element consider working. You can also test a Zener diode to establish a reference voltage turned OFF, transistor. Diode always keeps the voltage at the input supply side for general diode! The load from the safety point of view Zener breakdown happens and the cathode Zener! Full voltage appeared on the voltage surge commonly used transistor diode power calculation: =... Learn about this exciting and unique kind of diode that operates as a tunnel diode in opposite! Analog frequency of almost 4kHz ( human voice zener diode diagram voice signal having the analog of! Can also test a Zener diode voltage appeared on the output of the zener diode diagram! Please consider supporting us by disabling Your ad blocker Volt-Ampere characteristics of a Zener... Has its application in zener diode diagram biasing an NPN transistor ; a logic gate used... Go over the characteristics & working principle of a small voltage signal ( 0.1 0.6v. Q1 which is connected to this source voltage ) the V-I characteristics of Silicon and Germanium diodes appear across output. Resistors and a pair of Zener voltages and powers considerations you should know about voltage considerations you should a...

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